sâmbătă, 12 septembrie 2009

Acreditarea lui H.C. Vivian ca agent diplomatic şi consul general la Bucureşti (1874)

The accreditation of H.C. Vivian as British Diplomatic Agent
and Consul General at Bucharest (1874)


Abstract

The author brings in his study new information and unpublished documents about the accreditation of H.C. Vivian as British Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at Bucharest in 1874. This moment determined an incident with the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, concerning the language used in the letters of introduction, where the British diplomacy speaking about “The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia” as provinces “governed by His Highness Carol I”. Such a language means that Romania was considered by Foreign Office like a Province of Turkey and his ruler just like a governor. On the other side, the authorities of Bucharest insist on the rights of Romania as a distinct state, with constitutional governing.

Cuvinte cheie: diplomaţie, relaţii internaţionale, România, Marea Britanie
Key words: diplomacy, international relations, Romania, Great Britain

După o activitate diplomatică de aproape 15 ani în România, consulul general al Marii Britanii la Bucureşti, John Green, se retrăgea din postul său, la 16 aprilie 1874 , fiind înlocuit de baronul Hussey Crespigny Vivian, diplomat cu o destul de bogată experienţă. Întrucât acreditarea noului consul general al Marii Britanii la Bucureşti avea să dea naştere unui incident diplomatic puţin cunoscut în literatura de specialitate, prin studiul de faţă ne-am propus să introducem în circuitul ştiinţific câteva documente inedite din Colecţia Microfilme, fond Anglia, de la Arhivele Naţionale Istorice Centrale, documente privind atât acreditarea în sine, cât şi ceremonialul prezentării scrisorilor de acreditare.
Născut la Londra, la 19 iunie 1834, H.C. Vivian şi-a desăvârşit studiile la Colegiul Eton, pentru ca în 1851 să fie angajat în corpul funcţionarilor din cadrul Foreign Office. La scurtă vreme, în 1856, avea să-l însoţească pe lordul Clarendon la Congresul de Pace de la Paris din 1856, pentru ca trei ani mai târziu să facă parte din delegaţia britanică desemnată a-l investi cu „Ordinul Jartierei” pe Regele Prusiei Wilhelm I. O misiune diplomatică destul de delicată a dus-o la bun sfârşit în 1864, când fusese trimis la Atena cu proiectul unui tratat privind transferul Insulelor Ionice către Grecia. Experienţa dobândită în aceşti ani avea să ducă la promovarea sa, în 1869, ca funcţionar superior în cadrul aceluiaşi Foreign Office, pentru ca, ulterior, să fie numit consul general britanic la Alexandria, în 1873, iar un an mai târziu la Bucureşti .
Prezentarea scrisorilor de acreditare ale lui H.C. Vivian, în calitate de agent şi consul general al Marii Britanii la Bucureşti, a dat naştere unui incident menit să întârzie recunoaşterea oficială a diplomatului britanic de către Domnitorul Carol şi autorităţile Ministerului Afacerilor Externe de la Bucureşti. În respectivele scrisori de acreditare, diplomaţia britanică, prin limbajul utilizat, lăsa impresia că „Principatele Unite ale Moldovei şi Valahiei” sunt socotite, nici mai mult nici mai puţin, decât provincii ale Imperiului Otoman „guvernate” de Alteţa Sa Carol I . O astfel de formulare, fără echivoc, a fost de natură a stârni reacţia ministrului român de Externe, Vasile Boerescu, care printr-o notă diplomatică adresată agentului britanic subliniază, pe un ton ferm şi energic, drepturile şi statutul României potrivit tratatelor internaţionale .
Pe de altă parte, primit într-o audienţă particulară de către Domnitor , Vivian avea să se familiarizeze cu dorinţele şi aspiraţiile românilor. Carol I căuta să-l convingă pe interlocutorul său asupra drepturilor României potrivit tratatelor internaţionale, subliniind că singura legătură cu Imperiul Otoman era plata tributului, acceptată nu ca simbol al vasalităţii, ci în schimbul protecţiei faţă de orice invazie străină. Cunoscută fiind politica Marii Britanii în Orient, şi anume menţinerea integrităţii Imperiului Otoman şi a statu-quo-ului în Balcani, şi având în vedere acuta criza financiară care zguduia Sublima Poartă, Domnitorul încerca să sugereze necesitatea transformării României într-un stat independent, cu un statut asemănător cu cel al Belgiei, sub garanţia colectivă a Marilor Puteri. Printre drepturile României de care se prevala Carol I în discuţia cu diplomatul englez se număra şi acela privind încheierea de convenţii comerciale cu statele străine, fără intermedierea Porţii, drept contestat cu vehemenţă, aşa cum bine este cunoscut, de aceasta din urmă, dar care avea să fie recunoscut de partenerii „Alianţei celor trei Împăraţi”.
Incidentul iscat de scrisorile de acreditare avea să fie aplanat printr-un schimb de note între ministrul român de Externe şi diplomatul englez, care primise instrucţiuni de la Foreign Office în sensul eliminării expresiilor socotite jignitoare la Bucureşti. Astfel, a survenit recunoaşterea oficială, potrivit unui ceremonial bine stabilit , a lui H.C. Vivian în calitate de agent diplomatic şi consul general al Marii Britanii la Bucureşti. Cu acest prilej se afirma speranţa Guvernului englez de a menţine bunele relaţii cu Guvernul princiar, precum şi dorinţa Domnitorului Carol ca Marea Britanie să constituie un puternic sprijin în direcţia „împlinirii aspiraţiilor legitime ale României” . În noile circumstanţe, consulul britanic sugera chiar recunoaşterea titulaturii de România.
Timp de doi ani cât va conduce Consulatul englez de la Bucureşti, H.C. Vivian se va dovedi un bun observator al realităţilor societăţii româneşti, reuşind să ne ofere prin rapoartele sale diplomatice o imagine interesantă din perspectiva „celuilalt”. Se va întoarce la Alexandria, în 1876, deţinând acelaşi rang diplomatic de consul general, pentru ca ulterior să ajungă reprezentantul diplomatic al Marii Britanii la Berna (1879), Copenhaga (1881) şi Bruxelles (1884). Cea mai înaltă poziţie diplomatică o va deţine pentru scurt timp la Roma (1892), unde avea să-şi găsească sfârşitul în anul 1893, la vârsta de 59 de ani, răpus de pneumonie .


ANEXE

I

Bucarest,
Monsieur B. Boeresco, Le 16 Avril 1874
Ministre des Affaires Etrangères

Monsieur le Ministre,

La Reine, mon Auguste Souveraine ayant daigné, sur ma demande, m’accorder ma retraite, J’ai l’honneur de vous annoncer que c’est l’honorable Mr. Vivian qui me remplace ici en qualité d’Agent et Consul General britannique.
En portent ceci à Votre connaissance, permettez-moi, Monsieur le Ministre, de constater les relations cordiales qui ont invariablement existé entre nous, et de vous assurer du meilleur souvenir que Je garderai toujours de mes rapports avec le Gouvernement Princier.
Veuillez aussi agréer, Monsieur le Ministre, l’expression de ma haute considération.

J. Green

Arhiva Ministerului Afacerilor de Externe, Bucureşti, dosar nr. 4, reprezentanţi străini, litera G, nr. 1, nepaginat

II


No.10 Bucharest
Confidential 5 May 1874
Sent to Consple

To the Right Honorable
Earl of Derby

My Lord,

The difficulty as to my recognition having been satisfactorily solved by Your Lordship’s Telegram of the 1st Instant, I was received privately by the Prince the day before yesterday.
He was extremely kind and cordial and even surpassed Monsr Boeresco in the frankness of his language regarding the position and future of Roumania.
He expressed himself as pleased at my appointment, as I came here without prejudices, and he trusted I would faithfully report the position of affairs here, which Her Majesty’s Government seemed hardly to appreciate.
Roumania, he said, with a history and language of which she was proud, had made great progress since the arrangements which had been made for her by the Treaty of Paris, and did not deserve to be considered a Province of Turkey. She had never been conquered by Turkey nor surrendered her Sovereign Rights, which, on the contrary, she had expressly reserved in all her ancient treaties dating from the 14th Century. There rights comprised the power of making Treaties; appointing Agents abroad; of independent jurisdiction and even of concluding Peace or War. Her only tie to the Porte was the Tribute which she had undertaken to pay, not in taken of vassalage, but in exchange for a Protectorate against Foreign invasion and nothing more; but so long as the Porte continued to treat Roumania as a Vassal Province, no real friendship was possible between them (His words were “nous conspirons et nous conspirerons toujours contre elle”) and though he did not doubt that, as the Viceroy of Egypt had done and possibly the Prince of Servia [sic!] was now doing, be might purchase concessions towards Independence at Constantinople, he would stoop to nothing of the kind. He referred with some bitterness to a slight offered to his Agent at St. Petersburgh by the Turkish Ambassador, who refused to receive him except as the Representative of a vassal of the Sultan, and expressed his gratitude for the gracious and proper recognition of His Agent by the Emperor. He thought the financial state of Turkey foreshadowed the collapse of her power in Europe, and was a danger which it behooved the Great Powers to make arrangements to provide against, and that the creation of an Independent state of Roumania, protected like Belgium by a collective Guarantee, was one solution of the difficulty.
The term of the Commercial Treaties between the European Powers and Turkey was, he said, on the point of expiring, and it remained to be seen what she would do. He thought she would probably raise her tariff, while He and his Government desired the reverse and wished to propose treaties by which the existing duties would be lowered instead of raised; and He thought it probable that such a proposal would be favourably [sic!] received.
He was satisfied that his position in Roumania was now thoroughly secure and that the Peasantry were sincerely attached to their Prince, while he had a well organized Army and a Conservative Government and Parliament that had lasted longer than any previous ones, and under which the Country had made and would continue to make real progress.
During this conversation the Prince left me little opportunity to make any observations, but when His Highness spoke of the guaranteed Independence of Roumania, I said that the collective guarantee by which the Principalities were now protected would certainly not extend to such an arrangement.
I do not wish to give Your Lordship any exaggerated motion of the importance of the Prince’s language, which probably was not very carefully weighed and might not be entirely endorsed by his Government, but I have no doubt it honestly expressed his own views and ideas, which are ambitious.
I have not been here sufficiently long to enable me to judge accurately the depth or reality of the feeling in favor of Independence, which I suspect to be not entirely spontaneous nor without foreign encouragement, but judging from the tone of the Press, especially the papers said to be inspired by the Government, the language of the Prince; the well known views of Mr. Boeresco, and the great annoyance shown at the reference in Your Lordship’s letter to the dependence of the Principalities upon Turkey, I gather that there is at all events a very strong feeling against admitting her pretentious to any right of Sovereignty over Roumania.
Baron Calice, the new Austro-Hungarian Agent tells me that he is surprised at the undue importance attached to his appointment here, and that he has felt it right to warn Count Andrássy of the use made of his name in support of the idea of Roumanian [sic!] Independence.
My official reception by the Prince is now only delayed by the Court mourning. The Chambers meet in an extraordinary session on the 7th instant, and among other measures, their sanction will be asked to the creation of an Order which the Prince has just instituted. Both He and the Princess have been much gratified at receiving a private letter of sympathy from The Queen.

I have the honour to be, My Lord, with the greatest respect,
Your Lordship’s
Most Obedient
Humble Servant

(Signed) C. Vivian

Arhivele Naţionale Istorice Centrale (în continuare se va cita A.N.I.C.), Colecţia Microfilme, Fond Anglia, Public Record Office, Foreign Office, General Correspondence, F.O. 78, Turkey, rola 98, vol. 2338, cadrele 199-204.

III

Bucarest
29 Avril/11 Mai 1874
Ministère des
Affaires Etrangères

No. 4157

Monsieur l’Agent,

Ayant reçu et pris connaissance de la lettre par laquelle vous êtes accrédité en Roumanie comme Agent et Consul Général de Sa Majesté la Reine à la place de Mr. Green, mon premier devoir est de vous exprimer combien Son Altesse le Prince mon auguste Souverain, et son Gouvernement sont persuadés, Monsieur l’Agent, que votre nomination contribuera beaucoup à faire cultiver et à fortifier de plus en plus les bonnes relations entre l’Angleterre et la Roumanie. La nation roumaine, dont, les droits et l’existence politique comme Etat ont été reconnus et garantis par le traité et la Convention de Paris, n’oubliera jamais la reconnaissance quelle doit à la Grande Bretagne, comme Puissance Garante et elle est en droit d’espérer que la même bienveillance lui sera conservée aussi dans l’avenir.
C’est dans cette conviction, Monsieur l’Agent, que je me permets d’attirer l’attention du Gouvernement Anglais sur la forme de votre lettre d’introduction qui, quoique calquée sur les précédents, n’est pas moins, à notre avis, en contradiction avec la lettre et avec l’esprit du traité et de la Convention de 1856 et de 1858.
En effet, M. l’Agent, en se rapportant à ces actes internationaux, même dans leur sens le plus restreint, on voit que notre pays n’y est point qualifié de territoires gouvernés par Son Altesse ; il lui y est donné une autre qualification spéciale ; et il lui y est reconnu une existence propre et distincte de celle de la Porte Ottomane. Postérieurement à ces actes sa dynastie a été formellement reconnue par toutes les grandes Puissances, qui savent en même temps que la forme du Gouvernement de ce pays est constitutionnelle.
Un précédent erroné, quand même il aurait été répété une ou deux fois, ne pourrait point faire disparaît des droits acquis et des faits solennellement reconnus.
Du reste, les autres Puissances garantes observent dans les Lettres de créance de leurs Agents une forme plus en harmonie avec ces principes.
Nous souhaiterions, M. l’Agent, que le Gouvernement Anglais veuille bien faire cesser ce précédent ; et je suis persuadé qu’éclairé par vos informations, il sera convaincu de plus en plus combien notre Gouvernement désire réserver de plus en plus avec la Grande Bretagne ses relations d’amitié et de commerce.
Je puis encore vous assurer d’avance, Monsieur l’Agent, que le Gouvernement de Son Altesse se fait un véritable plaisir de se trouver en rapports avec un homme si distingué comme vous, et qu’il vous accordera toutes les facilités possibles pour remplira consciencieusement la mission que Sa Majesté la Reine vous à confiée.
Veuillez …

(Signé) B. Boresco


A.N.I.C., Colecţia Microfilme, Fond Anglia, Public Record Office, Foreign Office, General Correspondence, F.O. 78, Turkey, rola 98, vol. 2338, cadrele 209-212.

IV

No. 12 Bucharest
Sent to Consple May 12, 1874


To the Right Honorable
Earl of Derby

My Lord,

I have the honour to report that I had my official audience of the Prince yesterday, when I delivered to His Highness Your Lordship’s letter notifying to him my appointment. According to custom I had to made a short speech on the occasion in which I employed the language used in Your Lordship’s letter with respect to the good relations which Her Majesty’s Government desire to maintain with the Principalities, and I also expressed their honour for His Highness recent affection.
The Prince, in his reply, cordially reciprocated the friendly feelings I expressed on behalf on my Government, adding that he hoped for the powerful support of England “towards the accomplishment of the legitimate aspirations of Roumania”.
I have since received from the Minister for Foreign Affairs the letter, of which I inclose a copy, in which the text I referred to Your Lordship in my dispatch no. 6 confidential, seems to be accurately followed, while the courtesy of it’s tone leaves nothing to be desired. I got this from my Colleagues that the form of their Letters of introduction does show great consideration for the national pride of the Roumanians than does the precedent in use at the Foreign Office; and if Your Lordship sees nothing contrary to Treaty in adapting the title of “Moldo-Wallachia”, or even (as is has the merit of shortness) of “Roumania” for the Principalities, I would suggest the alteration of the form of precedent accordingly as however absurd it may seem, the present form is certainly bounding to the feelings of the Roumanians.
The omission too of any more reference than is necessary to their independence on the Porte would gratify them, and I believe in this respect also the introductory letters of my Colleagues differ from mine.
I may add that the Greek Agent and Consul General, who arrived here some time before me, has not yet obtained his Official reception owing, I believe, to his being unprovided [sic!] with a letter from the King of Greece for which he was asked on his arrival, and which he rather too hastily undertook to obtain.

I have the honour to be, with the highest respect,
My Lord,
Your Lordship’s most obedient
Humble Servant

(Signed) C. Vivian

A.N.I.C., Colecţia Microfilme, Fond Anglia, Public Record Office, Foreign Office, General Correspondence, F.O. 78, Turkey, rola 98, vol. 2338, cadrele 207-208.

V

Cérémonial de la Cour
Réception des Agents et Consuls Généraux ayant caractère diplomatique

A son arrivée, l’Agent diplomatique doit informer le Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, soit par un Secrétaire de l’Agence, soit par une lettre, de son arrivée et lui demander son jour et son heure pour le visiter et lui donner copie de ses lettres de créance.
Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères prend les ordres de Son Altesse pour la réception solennelle au Palais.
Le jour de l’audience étant fixé par Son Altesse, le Maréchal de la Cour en prévient le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères qui, à son tour, en informe l’Agent.
Le jour fixé pour l’audience, un aide de camp de Son Altesse, se rend avec deux voitures de la Cour et deux valets de pied en gala, à la demeure de l’Agent, et le conduit au Palais.
L’aide de camp fait monter le Chef de la mission dans la première voiture et prend place à sa gauche ; les autres membres de l’agence prennent place dans la seconde voiture.
Au Palais la garde se met sous les armes.
L’Agent est reçu au pied du grand escalier par l’officier d’ordonnance du jour.
L’aide de camp introduit l’Agent et sa suite dans le salon de réception où se tiennent le Maréchal de la Cour et la maison militaire de Son Altesse. L’aide de camp de service auprès de Son Altesse annonce à Monseigneur le Prince l’Agent par son nom et titres, après quoi l’Agent et son personnel sont invités à passer dans l’appartement où se trouve Son Altesse. Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères présente l’Agent a Son Altesse. L’Agent prononce quelques paroles et remet ses lettres de créance au Prince qui les dépose entre les mains du Ministre des Affaires Etrangères ; il présent ensuite son personnel à Son Altesse.
Lorsque Son Altesse congédie l’Agent, celui-ci est reconduit avec le même cérémonial qui a présidé à son arrivée. Pendant l’audience, le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères est à gauche de Son Altesse. Les maisons civile et militaire se tiennent derrière Son Altesse.
Après la remise des lettres de créance et la fin de la réception chez Son Altesse le Prince, l’Agent sera conduit dans les appartements de Son Altesse la Princesse par le Maréchal de la Cour, qui le présentera à Son Altesse.


A.N.I.C., Colecţia Microfilme, Fond Anglia, Public Record Office, Foreign Office, General Correspondence, F.O. 78, Turkey, rola 92, vol. 2226, cadrele 30-35.

Un comentariu:

Anonim spunea...

Nous vous remercions de intiresnuyu iformatsiyu